Lead Hazard Reduction methods are the specific types of treatments to control lead-based paint hazards. The method of Lead Hazard Reduction required is determined by the type of housing activity being undertaken. There are two Lead Hazard Reduction methods: abatement and interim controls. These methods are discussed below and consolidated into a summary table of reduction methods.
Abatement is a Lead Hazard Reduction method that is designed to permanently eliminate lead-based paint or lead-based paint hazards. Permanent is defined as having 20 year expected life. Abatement must be performed by certified abatement workers who successfully completed an EPA accredited abatement worker course and supervised by an abatement supervisor certified under a State program authorized by EPA, or by EPA. Abatement activities include:
- Removing lead-based paint and its dust
- Permanently encapsulating or enclosing the lead-based paint
- Replacing components with lead-based paint
- Removing or permanently covering lead-contaminated soil
- Interim controls.
Interim controls are Lead Hazard Reduction activities that temporarily reduce exposure to lead-based paint hazards through repairs, painting, maintenance, special cleaning, occupant protection measures, clearance, and education programs. A person performing paint stabilization, interim controls, or standard treatments must be trained in accordance with OSHA Hazard Communication requirements (29 CFR 1926.59) and must be supervised by a certified lead-based paint abatement supervisor, or must have successfully completed a HUD-approved training course. Interim control methods require safe work practices and include:
- Paint stabilization. Repair any physical defect in the substrate of a painted surface that is causing paint deterioration, remove loose paint and other material form the surface to be treated, and apply a new protective coating or paint
- Treatment for friction and impact surfaces. Correct the conditions that create friction or impact with surfaces with lead-based paint.
- Treatment for chewable surfaces. If a child under age six has chewed surfaces known or presumed to contain lead-based paint, these surfaces must be enclosed or coated so they are impenetrable.
- Lead-contaminated dust control. All rough, pitted or porous horizontal surfaces must be covered with a smooth, cleanable covering. Carpets must be vacuumed on both sides using HEPA vacuums or equivalent.
- Lead-contaminated soil control. If bare soil is lead-contaminated, impermanent surface coverings such as gravel, bark, and sod, as well as land use controls such as fencing, landscaping, and warning signs may be used.
- Standard Treatments.
Standard treatments may be conducted in lieu of a risk assessment and interim controls. Standard treatments are designed to reduce all lead-based paint hazards in a unit. Standard treatments must be performed on all applicable surfaces, including bare soil, to control lead-based paint hazards that may be present. All standard treatment methods must follow safe work practices. Standard treatments consist of a full set of treatments that include:
- Paint stabilization
- Creating smooth and cleanable horizontal surfaces
- Correcting dust-generating conditions
- Addressing bare residential soil